change in shape due to the application of force

drag force

FD, found to be proportional to the square of the speed of the object; mathematically

FD∝v2

FD=12CρAv2,

where C is the drag coefficient, A is the area of the object facing the fluid, and ρ is the density of the fluid

friction

a force that opposes relative motion or attempts at motion between systems in contact

Hooke’s law

proportional relationship between the force F on a material and the deformation ΔL it causes, F=kΔL

kinetic friction

a force that opposes the motion of two systems that are in contact and moving relative to one another

magnitude of kinetic friction

fk=μkN, where μk is the coefficient of kinetic friction

magnitude of static friction

fs≤μsN, where μs is the coefficient of static friction and N is the magnitude of the normal force

shear deformation

deformation perpendicular to the original length of an object

static friction

a force that opposes the motion of two systems that are in contact and are not moving relative to one another

Stokes’ law

Fs=6πrηv, where r is the radius of the object, η is the viscosity of the fluid, and v is the object’s velocity

strain

ratio of change in length to original length

stress

ratio of force to area

tensile strength

measure of deformation for a given tension or compression

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