By the end of this section, you will be able to:

- Use the distance, rate, and time formula
- Solve a formula for a specific variable

One formula you’ll use often in algebra and in everyday life is the formula for distance traveled by an object moving at a constant speed. The basic idea is probably already familiar to you. Do you know what distance you travel if you drove at a steady rate of 60 miles per hour for 2 hours? (This might happen if you use your car’s cruise control while driving on the Interstate.) If you said 120

miles, you already know how to use this formula!

The math to calculate the distance might look like this:

In general, the formula relating distance, rate, and time is

Notice that the units we used above for the rate were miles per hour, which we can write as a ratio *miles/hour*. Then when we multiplied by the time, in hours, the common units ‘hour’ divided out. The answer was in miles.

In this chapter, you became familiar with some formulas used in geometry. Formulas are also very useful in the sciences and social sciences—fields such as chemistry, physics, biology, psychology, sociology, and criminal justice. Healthcare workers use formulas, too, even for something as routine as dispensing medicine. The widely used spreadsheet program Microsoft Excel^{TM} relies on formulas to do its calculations. Many teachers use spreadsheets to apply formulas to compute student grades. It is important to be familiar with formulas and be able to manipulate them easily.

In Example 9.57 and Example 9.58, we used the formula d=rt. This formula gives the value of d when you substitute in the values of r and t. But in Example 9.58, we had to find the value of t. We substituted in values of d and r and then used algebra to solve to t. If you had to do this often, you might wonder why there isn’t a formula that gives the value of t when you substitute in the values of d and r. We can get a formula like this by solving the formula d=rt for t.

To solve a formula for a specific variable means to get that variable by itself with a coefficient of 1 on one side of the equation and all the other variables and constants on the other side. We will call this solving an equation for a specific variable in general. This process is also called solving a literal equation. The result is another formula, made up only of variables. The formula contains letters, or literals.

Let’s try a few examples, starting with the distance, rate, and time formula we used above.

In Solve Simple Interest Applications, we used the formula *I*=*Prt* to calculate simple interest, where *I* is interest, *P* is principal, *r* is rate as a decimal, and *t* is time in years.

Later in this class, and in future algebra classes, you’ll encounter equations that relate two variables, usually *x* and *y*. You might be given an equation that is solved for *y* and need to solve it for *x*, or vice versa. In the following example, we’re given an equation with both *x* and *y* on the same side and we’ll solve it for *y*. To do this, we will follow the same steps that we used to solve a formula for a specific variable.

In the previous examples, we used the numbers in part (a) as a guide to solving in general in part (b). Do you think you’re ready to solve a formula in general without using numbers as a guide?

The Links to Literacy activity *What’s Faster than a Speeding Cheetah?* will provide you with another view of the topics covered in this section.

- Distance=RatexTime
- Distance, Rate, Time
- Simple Interest
- Solving a Formula for a Specific Variable
- Solving a Formula for a Specific Variable

**Use the Distance, Rate, and Time Formula**

In the following exercises, solve.

307.Steve drove for 812 hours at 72 miles per hour. How much distance did he travel?

308.Socorro drove for 456 hours at 60 miles per hour. How much distance did she travel?

309.Yuki walked for 134 hours at 4 miles per hour. How far did she walk?

310.Francie rode her bike for 212 hours at 12 miles per hour. How far did she ride?

311.Connor wants to drive from Tucson to the Grand Canyon, a distance of 338 miles. If he drives at a steady rate of 52 miles per hour, how many hours will the trip take?

312.Megan is taking the bus from New York City to Montreal. The distance is 384 miles and the bus travels at a steady rate of 64 miles per hour. How long will the bus ride be?

313.Aurelia is driving from Miami to Orlando at a rate of 65 miles per hour. The distance is 235 miles. To the nearest tenth of an hour, how long will the trip take?

314.Kareem wants to ride his bike from St. Louis, Missouri to Champaign, Illinois. The distance is 180 miles. If he rides at a steady rate of 16 miles per hour, how many hours will the trip take?

315.Javier is driving to Bangor, Maine, which is 240 miles away from his current location. If he needs to be in Bangor in 4 hours, at what rate does he need to drive?

316.Alejandra is driving to Cincinnati, Ohio, 450 miles away. If she wants to be there in 6 hours, at what rate does she need to drive?

317.Aisha took the train from Spokane to Seattle. The distance is 280 miles, and the trip took 3.5 hours. What was the speed of the train?

318.Philip got a ride with a friend from Denver to Las Vegas, a distance of 750 miles. If the trip took 10 hours, how fast was the friend driving?

**Solve a Formula for a Specific Variable**

In the following exercises, use the formula. *d*=*rt*.

ⓐ After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

ⓑ Overall, after looking at the checklist, do you think you are well-prepared for the next Chapter? Why or why not?

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