By the end of this section, you will be able to:

- Translate and solve basic percent equations
- Solve applications of percent
- Find percent increase and percent decrease

We will solve percent equations by using the methods we used to solve equations with fractions or decimals. In the past, you may have solved percent problems by setting them up as proportions. That was the best method available when you did not have the tools of algebra. Now as a prealgebra student, you can translate word sentences into algebraic equations, and then solve the equations.

We’ll look at a common application of percent—tips to a server at a restaurant—to see how to set up a basic percent application.

When Aolani and her friends ate dinner at a restaurant, the bill came to $80. They wanted to leave a 20% tip. What amount would the tip be?

To solve this, we want to find what amount is 20% of $80. The $80 is called the base. The amount of the tip would be 0.20(80), or $16 See Figure 6.6. To find the amount of the tip, we multiplied the percent by the base.

**Figure 6.6** A 20% tip for an $80 restaurant bill comes out to $16.$16.

In the next examples, we will find the amount. We must be sure to change the given percent to a decimal when we translate the words into an equation.

In the next examples, we are asked to find the base.

Many applications of percent occur in our daily lives, such as tips, sales tax, discount, and interest. To solve these applications we’ll translate to a basic percent equation, just like those we solved in the previous examples in this section. Once you translate the sentence into a percent equation, you know how to solve it.

We will update the strategy we used in our earlier applications to include equations now. Notice that we will translate a sentence into an equation.

Now that we have the strategy to refer to, and have practiced solving basic percent equations, we are ready to solve percent applications. Be sure to ask yourself if your final answer makes sense—since many of the applications we’ll solve involve everyday situations, you can rely on your own experience.

People in the media often talk about how much an amount has increased or decreased over a certain period of time. They usually express this increase or decrease as a percent.

To find the **percent increase**, first we find the amount of increase, which is the difference between the new amount and the original amount. Then we find what percent the amount of increase is of the original amount.

Finding the **percent decrease** is very similar to finding the percent increase, but now the amount of decrease is the difference between the original amount and the final amount. Then we find what percent the amount of decrease is of the original amount.

**Translate and Solve Basic Percent Equations**

In the following exercises, translate and solve.

- What number is 45% of 120?
- What number is 65% of 100?
- What number is 24% of 112?
- What number is 36% of 124?
- 250% of 65 is what number?
- 150% of 90 is what number?
- 800% of 2,250 is what number?
- 600% of 1,740 is what number?
- 28 is 25% of what number?
- 36 is 25% of what number?
- 81 is 75% of what number?
- 93 is 75% of what number?
- 8.2% of what number is $2.87?
- 6.4% of what number is $2.88?
- 11.5% of what number is $108.10?
- 12.3% of what number is $92.25?
- What percent of 260 is 78?
- What percent of 215 is 86?
- What percent of 1,500 is 540?
- What percent of 1,800 is 846?
- 30 is what percent of 20?
- 50 is what percent of 40?
- 840 is what percent of 480?
- 790 is what percent of 395?
**Solve Applications of Percents**

In the following exercises, solve the applications of percents.

- Geneva treated her parents to dinner at their favorite restaurant. The bill was $74.25. She wants to leave 16% of the total bill as a tip. How much should the tip be?
- When Hiro and his co-workers had lunch at a restaurant the bill was $90.50. They want to leave 18% of the total bill as a tip. How much should the tip be?
- Trong has 12% of each paycheck automatically deposited to his savings account. His last paycheck was $2,165. How much money was deposited to Trong’s savings account?
- Cherise deposits 8% of each paycheck into her retirement account. Her last paycheck was $1,485. How much did Cherise deposit into her retirement account?
- One serving of oatmeal has 8 grams of fiber, which is 33% of the recommended daily amount. What is the total recommended daily amount of fiber?
- One serving of trail mix has 67 grams of carbohydrates, which is 22% of the recommended daily amount. What is the total recommended daily amount of carbohydrates?
- A bacon cheeseburger at a popular fast food restaurant contains 2,070 milligrams (mg) of sodium, which is 86% of the recommended daily amount. What is the total recommended daily amount of sodium?
- A grilled chicken salad at a popular fast food restaurant contains 650 milligrams (mg) of sodium, which is 27% of the recommended daily amount. What is the total recommended daily amount of sodium?
- The nutrition fact sheet at a fast food restaurant says the fish sandwich has 380 calories, and 171 calories are from fat. What percent of the total calories is from fat?
- The nutrition fact sheet at a fast food restaurant says a small portion of chicken nuggets has 190 calories, and 114 calories are from fat. What percent of the total calories is from fat?
- Emma gets paid $3,000 per month. She pays $750 a month for rent. What percent of her monthly pay goes to rent?
- Dimple gets paid $3,200 per month. She pays $960 a month for rent. What percent of her monthly pay goes to rent?

Find Percent Increase and Percent Decrease

In the following exercises, find the percent increase or percent decrease.

- Tamanika got a raise in her hourly pay, from $15.50 to $17.55. Find the percent increase.
- Ayodele got a raise in her hourly pay, from $24.50 to $25.48. Find the percent increase.
- Annual student fees at the University of California rose from about $4,000 in 2000 to about $9,000 in 2014. Find the percent increase.
- The price of a share of one stock rose from $12.50 to $50. Find the percent increase.
- According to Time magazine (7/19/2011) annual global seafood consumption rose from 22 pounds per person in 1960 to 38 pounds per person today. Find the percent increase. (Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.)
- In one month, the median home price in the Northeast rose from $225,400 to $241,500. Find the percent increase. (Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.)
- A grocery store reduced the price of a loaf of bread from $2.80 to $2.73. Find the percent decrease.
- The price of a share of one stock fell from $8.75 to $8.54. Find the percent decrease.
- Hernando’s salary was $49,500 last year. This year his salary was cut to $44,055. Find the percent decrease.
- From 2000 to 2010, the population of Detroit fell from about 951,000 to about 714,000. Find the percent decrease. (Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.)
- In one month, the median home price in the West fell from $203,400 to $192,300. Find the percent decrease. (Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.)
- Sales of video games and consoles fell from $1,150 million to $1,030 million in one year. Find the percent decrease. (Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.)
**Everyday Math** - Tipping At the campus coffee cart, a medium coffee costs $1.65. MaryAnne brings $2.00 with her when she buys a cup of coffee and leaves the change as a tip. What percent tip does she leave?
- Late Fees Alison was late paying her credit card bill of $249. She was charged a 5% late fee. What was the amount of the late fee?
**Writing Exercises** - Without solving the problem “44 is 80% of what number”, think about what the solution might be. Should it be a number that is greater than 44 or less than 44? Explain your reasoning.
- Without solving the problem “What is 20% of 300?” think about what the solution might be. Should it be a number that is greater than 300 or less than 300? Explain your reasoning.
- After returning from vacation, Alex said he should have packed 50% fewer shorts and 200% more shirts. Explain what Alex meant.
- Because of road construction in one city, commuters were advised to plan their Monday morning commute to take 150% of their usual commuting time. Explain what this means.

ⓐ After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

ⓑ After reviewing this checklist, what will you do to become confident for all objectives?

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