By the end of this section, you will be able to:

- Find the least common denominator (LCD)
- Convert fractions to equivalent fractions with the LCD
- Add and subtract fractions with different denominators
- Identify and use fraction operations
- Use the order of operations to simplify complex fractions
- Evaluate variable expressions with fractions

In the previous section, we explained how to add and subtract fractions with a common denominator. But how can we add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators?

Let’s think about coins again. Can you add one quarter and one dime? You could say there are two coins, but that’s not very useful. To find the total value of one quarter plus one dime, you change them to the same kind of unit—cents. One quarter equals 25 cents and one dime equals 10 cents, so the sum is 35 cents. See Figure 4.7.

**Figure 4.7** Together, a quarter and a dime are worth 35 cents, or 35100 of a dollar.

By now in this chapter, you have practiced multiplying, dividing, adding, and subtracting fractions. The following table summarizes these four fraction operations. Remember: You need a common denominator to add or subtract fractions, but not to multiply or divide fractions

In Multiply and Divide Mixed Numbers and Complex Fractions, we saw that a complex fraction is a fraction in which the numerator or denominator contains a fraction. We simplified complex fractions by rewriting them as division problems. For example,

Now we will look at complex fractions in which the numerator or denominator can be simplified. To follow the order of operations, we simplify the numerator and denominator separately first. Then we divide the numerator by the denominator.

We have evaluated expressions before, but now we can also evaluate expressions with fractions. Remember, to evaluate an expression, we substitute the value of the variable into the expression and then simplify.

**Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD)**

In the following exercises, find the least common denominator (LCD) for each set of fractions.

434.

Explain why it is necessary to have a common denominator to add or subtract fractions.435.

Explain how to find the LCD of two fractions.

ⓐ After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

ⓑ After looking at the checklist, do you think you are well prepared for the next section? Why or why not?

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